Home English CHAPTER : HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE
English - Health - 4 weeks ago

CHAPTER : HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE

Health:-
It can be defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. When people are healthy, they are more efficient at work.

Health is affected by:
Genetic disorders: inheritable defects from parents to children.
Infections and
Lifestyle, including the food and water we drink, rest and exercise that we give our bodies, the habits we have or lack, etc.

Diseases can be broadly grouped into infectious and non-infectious. Diseases that are easily transmitted from one person to another are called infectious diseases. Among non-infectious diseases, cancer is the leading cause of death.

Common diseases in humans:
Pathogen: – Disease causing organisms.


Typhoid:
Pathogen: Salmonella typhi.
Symptoms: high fever, weakness, stomach pain, constipation, headache and loss of appetite, intestinal perforation and death can occur in severe cases. Typhoid fever could be confirmed by the Widal test.
Mode of transmission: These pathogens generally enter the small intestine through contaminated food and water and migrate to other organs through the blood.

 

DISEASES CAUSED BY PROTOZOANS.
Malaria (means bad air)
Pathogen. Plasmodium protozoan.
Vector. Female Anopheles mosquito
Symptoms Headaches, muscle pain, high fever. During the fever, the patient feels chills and chills.
Prevention. Eradication of the table and keep the environment clean.
Treatment. It involves the use of medications such as quinine and the protection of patients against mosquitoes.
Propagation mode. This disease is spread by the bite of the infected Anopheles mosquito. Only the female Anopheles is able to spread the disease because it absorbs the blood of the man.

Amebiasis
Pathogen. It is due to an intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.
Symptoms This parasite lives in the large intestine and destroys the mucous membrane. This can cause bleeding and ulcers that cause dysentery. Therefore, the patient passes blood and mucus with the stool. There will be severe pain in the abdomen, fever, nausea and nervousness.
Mode of transmission: as the pathogen cysts are in the intestinal secretion, the possibility of infection in healthy people is through contaminated water or improperly washed or cooked vegetables and fruits. The pathogen can also be transmitted through dirty hands.
Prevention. Adequate elimination of the patient’s stool. Vegetables and fruits when used raw should be washed thoroughly. Water should be boiled before drinking.

Drugs and alcohol abuse includes –

Opioids:  

    • Morphine is obtained from Poppy plant. It is a sedative (depressant) and pain killer. Heroin is chemically diacetylmorphine.  It slows down body functions. Example, Heroin (extracted from

Papaver somniferum

Cannabinoids: 

    • Itis obtained from Cannabis sativa. These are taken by inhalation and oral ingestion, they affect the cardiovascular system of the body. Example, marijuana, hashish,

charas

    • ,

ganja 

    • (obtained from

Cannabis sativa

Coca alkaloids /

Cocaine

    • : it is obtained from

Erythroxylon coca

Hallucinogens: 

    • It is obtained from

Atropa belladonna

    •  and

Datura sp

Tobacco:

     it contains nicotine, which is stimulant. It stimulates adrenaline and increases the secretion of adrenaline. Smoking of tobacco leads to lung cancer, bronchitis, emphysema, coronary heart diseases.

Adolescence and Drug abuse
Adolescence is the period during which the child becomes matured.
It is between 12 – 18 years of age.
Causes of drug abuse –
Curiosity
Adventure
Excitement
Experimentation
Stress or pressure to excel in examination

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.